Newly Updated: The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia’s Early Soviet Regime, part 3
by Mark Weber
A STRIKING FEATURE of Mr. Wilton’s examination of the tumultuous 1917-1919 period in Russia is his frank treatment of the critically important Jewish role in establishing the Bolshevik regime.
The following lists of persons in the Bolshevik Party and Soviet administration during this period, which Wilton compiled on the basis of official reports and original documents, underscore the crucial Jewish role in these bodies. These lists first appeared in the rare French edition of Wilton’s book, published in Paris in 1921 under the title Les Derniers Jours des Romanoffs. They did not appear in either the American or British editions of The Last Days of the Romanovs published in 1920.
“I have done all in my power to act as an impartial chronicler,” Wilton wrote in his foreword to Les Derniers Jours des Romanoffs. “In order not to leave myself open to any accusation of prejudice, I am giving the list of the members of the [Bolshevik Party’ s] Central Committee, of the Extraordinary Commission [Cheka or secret police], and of the Council of Commissars functioning at the time of the assassination of the Imperial family.
“The 62 members of the [Central] Committee were composed of five Russians, one Ukrainian, six Letts [Latvians], two Germans, one Czech, two Armenians, three Georgians, one Karaim [Karaite] (a Jewish sect), and 41 Jews.
“The Extraordinary Commission [Cheka or Vecheka] of Moscow was composed of 36 members, including one German, one Pole, one Armenian, two Russians, eight Latvians, and 23 Jews.
“The Council of the People’s Commissars [the Soviet .government] numbered two Armenians, three Russians, and 17 Jews.
“According to data furnished by the Soviet press, out of 556 important functionaries of the Bolshevik state, including the above-mentioned, in 1918-1919 there were: 17 Russians, two Ukrainians, eleven Armenians, 35 Letts [Latvians], 15 Germans, one Hungarian, ten Georgians, three Poles, three Finns, one Czech, one Karaim, and 457 Jews.”
“If the reader is astonished to find the Jewish hand everywhere in the affair of the assassination of the Russian Imperial family, he must bear in mind the formidable numerical preponderance of Jews in the Soviet administration,” Wilton went on to write.
Effective governmental power, Wilton continued (on pages 136-138 of the same edition) is in the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party. In 1918, he reported, this body had twelve members, of whom nine were of Jewish origin, and three were of Russian ancestry. The nine Jews were: Bronstein (Trotsky), Apfelbaum (Zinoviev), Lurie (Larine), Uritsky, Volodarski, Rosenfeld (Kamenev), Smidovich, Sverdlov (Yankel), and Nakhamkes (Steklov). The three Russians were: Ulyanov (Lenin), Krylenko, and Lunacharsky.
“The other Russian Socialist parties are similar in composition,” Wilton went on. “Their Central Committees are made up as follows:”
Mensheviks (Social Democrats): Eleven members, all of whom are Jewish.
Communists of the People: Six members, of whom five are Jews and one is a Russian.
Social Revolutionaries (Right Wing): Fifteen members, of whom 13 are Jews and two are Russians (Kerenski, who may be of Jewish origin, and Tchaikovski).
Social Revolutionaries (Left Wing): Twelve members, of whom ten are Jews and two are Russians.
Committee of the Anarchists of Moscow: Five members, of whom four are Jews and one is a Russian.
Polish Communist Party: Twelve members, all of whom are Jews, including Sobelson (Radek), Krokhenal (Zagonski), and Schwartz (Goltz).
“These parties,” commented Wilton, “in appearance opposed to the Bolsheviks, play the Bolsheviks’ game on the sly, more or less, by preventing the Russians from pulling themselves together. Out of 61 individuals at the head of these parties, there are six Russians and 55 Jews. No matter what may be the name adopted, a revolutionary government will be Jewish.”
[Although the Bolsheviks permitted these leftist political groups to operate for a time under close supervision and narrow limits, even these pitiful remnants of organized opposition were thoroughly eliminated by the end of the year 1921.]
The Soviet government, or “Council of People’s Commissars’ (also known as the “Sovnarkom”) was made up of the following, Wilton reported:
|Peoples Commissariat (Ministry)||Name||Nationality|
|Chairman||V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin)||Russian|
|Foreign Affairs||G.V. Chicherin||Russian|
|Nationalities||J. Dzhugashvili [Stalin]||Georgian|
|Economic Council||Lourie (Larin)||Jew|
|Food Supply||A.G. Schlikhter||Jew|
|Army and Navy [Military]||L.D. Bronstein (Trotski)||Jew|
|State Control||K.I. Lander||Jew|
|Works [Labor]||V. Schmidt||Jew|
|Social Relief||E. Lilina (Knigissen)||Jew|
|Interior||Apfelbaum [Radomyslski] (Zinoviev)||Jew|
|Finance||I. E. Gukovs [and G. Sokolnikov]||Jew|
Out of these 22 “Sovnarkom” members, Wilton summed up, there were three Russians, one Georgian, one Armenian, and 17 Jews.
The Central Executive Committee, Wilton continues, was made up of the following members:
|Y. M. Sverdlov [Solomon] (Chairman)||Jew|
|N. I. Bukharin||Russian|
|Ganzberg [Ganzburg ]||Jew|
|A. A. Ioffe||Jew|
|L. Bronstein (Trotsky)||Jew|
Thus, concluded Wilton, out of 61 members, five were Russians, six were Latvians, one was a German, two were Armenians, one was a Czech, one was an Imeretian, two were Georgians, one was a Karaim, one was a Ukrainian, and 41 were Jews.
The Extraordinary Commission of Moscow (Cheka) ‘the Soviet secret police and predecessor of the GPU, the NKVD and the KGB was made up of the following:
|F. Dzerzhinsky (Chairman)||Pole|
|Y. Peters (Deputy Chairman)||Latvian|
|G. Sverdlov (Brother of president of the Central Executive Committee)||Jew|
|J. Blumkin (Count Mirbach’s assassin)||Jew|
|Alexandrovitch (Blumkin’s accomplice)||Russian|
Of these 36 Cheka officials, one was a Pole, one a German, one an Armenian, two were Russians, eight were Latvians, and 23 were Jews.
“Accordingly,” Wilton sums up, “there is no reason to be surprised at the preponderant role of Jews in the assassination of the Imperial family. It is rather the opposite that would have been surprising.”
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