Who Plundered the Tsar’s Gold?
ONE OF THE 20th Century’s great mysteries is what happened to Imperial Russia’s gold reserves following the Wall-Street-financed coup in 1917 that overthrew the Tsarist government. This coup is known wrongly as the Russian Revolution.
At the outbreak of World War One the gold reserves of Imperial Russia were by far the largest in the world. Leaving aside Russia’s priceless works of art (likewise looted and sent abroad), the gold in Russia’s vaults weighed 1,311 tonnes. At today’s value the stolen bullion’s value is $60 billion.
Gold reserves that fell into the hands of the Bolsheviks totaled considerably more than 1,101 million rubles. After signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, German bankers asked Lenin to hand over part of the Russian gold. Such is the sensitivity surrounding the Russian gold reserve’s eventual destination that there is virtually no mention of its fate in the English language literature.
Some of the cache can be in part accounted for. Between 1914 and 1917 about one third of Imperial Russia’s gold reserves were shipped to Canada and the UK for “temporary storage.” These were used as a guarantee of British loans to purchase military equipment at vastly inflated prices. It is estimated that half the remaining gold was shipped from Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan, Tatarstan where Asia meets Europe.
On September 4, 1918, Wall Street’s Bolsheviks were in control of Moscow and the bullion in Nizhny Novgorod was ordered back to Moscow. On September 9, 1918, the first 5,808 bars of gold (97 tonnes) was packed in wooden boxes. Secured by Latvian guards, they were then sent by train to Moscow and then to Orsha. The remaining gold was sent to Berlin. There, the shipment was received by representatives of the Reichsbank and various uniformed officials. These included the Jewish Soviet diplomat Adolf Abramovich Joffe and also representatives of the bank of Mendelssohn and Co.
On October 11, 1918 gold weighing 3,125 kilograms was sent to Berlin. This was part payment of bank loans that facilitated the sealed train (Plombierten Wagen) that was used to transport Lenin and other insurgents on their mission to overthrow the Tsarist government. Also shipped to Vyacheslav Menzhinsky, the Consul General in Berlin, was the looted 34.5 million rubles in gold and banknotes. So much for the “workers’ revolution” — destined to cost 70 to 100 million lives over the following 70 years.
The railway wagons loaded with plundered Russian gold was received by Commissioner Yakov Ganetsky (Jakub Fürstenberg). By happy coincidence he was a close associate of the Jewish criminal banker Alexander Parvus who was now representative of Swedish banking house Mendelssohn and Co.
On November 13 the Central Executive Committee of the Communist Party, after having brought revolution to post-war Germany in 1918, adopted a decision to annul their Brest-Litovsk Treaty obligations relating to the payment of their indemnity. This looted Russian gold bullion was now transferred to the Bank of France, and British and U.S banking houses, and was lost to Russia forever.
In addition, more than 500 tonnes of Russian gold reserves had been shipped to the city of Nizhny Novgorod. The city was soon at risk of falling into the hands of the White Armies. To avoid the gold’s seizure by the armies opposed to the Bolsheviks the gold was prepared for evacuation. In their haste the Bolsheviks were only able to grab 4.6 tonnes of gold that was packed in 100 boxes. The abandoned gold did indeed fall into the hands of the White Armies under the command of General Vladimir Kappel.
These liberated 505 tonnes of gold reserves finally made their way to relative safety in Omsk. There they were deposited with the White Army government of anti-Bolshevik Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak. This treasure was essential for the continuation of the White Army’s resistance to the Western banks’ attempt to seize Imperial Russia. Admiral Kolchak’s reserves were considerable — but a pittance when set against the bottomless cache of Wall Street, German, British, and French Jewish-controlled banks. John Schiff, grandson of German-Jew banker Jacob Schiff, conceded that his grandfather “has sunk about $20,000,000 for the final triumph of Bolshevism in Russia.” The Jewish-owned banking world in the U.S, Britain, France, and Germany had invested heavily in the so-called workers’ revolution.
The gold reserves now held by the White Army leader were sought after by Bolsheviks and their Czech army allies. On October 31, 1919, Admiral Kolchak’s gold bullion was shipped on 40 train wagons to Irkutsk in Siberia. These were desperate times in a war with a rapidly shifting front. The Trans-Siberian Railway was at some points guarded by Czech troops. The gold bullion during transit fell into the hands of the Czechs — whose good fortune was not to last long. The triumphant Red Army handed the gold’s Czech captors a measly 409 million rubles after taking possession of the gold. The Czech armies were then told to get out of Bolshevik Russia by ship or by casket. From December 1919, the Czechoslovak Legion evacuated Russia through Vladivostok on a fleet of 42 ships. Aboard the fleet were 72,644 Czechs who were ferried to Europe from Vladivostok.
The Bolsheviks discovered, however, that in some of the seized boxes were nothing but bricks and stones. Dilemma: How does one repay Wall Street banks with bricks and stones? The Bolsheviks did, however, ship what Russian gold they had seized to banks in Germany, France, and the United States.
Mystery surrounds precisely how much of Imperial Russia’s gold reserves ended up in “Western” banks. We do know that 236,000,000 rubles are “unaccounted for.” According to current research, the looted reserves were transferred to the accounts of Russian financial agents in various countries.
White Army leader Admiral Kolchak’s fate is poignant. He and his White Armies were betrayed by France. French banks were a major beneficiary of the seized Russian gold bullion. France also requisitioned Imperial Russia’s vast fleet of ships before sending Russia’s refugees into exile and penury. Thus, thanks to the duplicitous Bolsheviks — primarily, in this instance, headed by Jewish gangster and killer Zinovy Sverdlov (Peshkov) who was brother of Yakov (Jacob) Sverdlov — Imperial Russia’s gold reserves eventually found their way into Jewish-owned banks in Europe and the United States.
According to writer Anthony Sutton, gold was the only means by which the Soviet Union could pay its foreign-sourced purchases. International bankers were willing to facilitate Soviet gold shipments from as early as 1920.
In August, 1920, a shipment of Russian gold coins was received at the Den Norske Handels Bank in Norway. The coins were examined and, after being weighed, were found to have been minted before the outbreak of war in 1914. They were genuine Imperial Russian coins. The Robert Dollar Company of San Francisco received gold bars valued at thirty-nine million Swedish kroner — each bearing the stamp of the old Tsarist Government of Russia.
Ships loaded with looted Russian gold left Reval on the Baltic Sea destined for the United States. On the S.S. Gauthod were loaded 216 boxes of gold. On the S.S. Carl Line were loaded another 216 boxes of gold under the supervision of Russian agents. The S.S. Ruhelev was laden with 108 boxes of gold. This was followed by a large shipment of looted gold on the S.S. Wheeling Mold.
The Bolshevik-funding banking house of Jacob Schiff — Kuhn, Loeb & Company — was very much in the picture of looting Imperial Russia’s gold reserves. The U.S government, under influences it is not difficult to imagine, issued the following edict: ‘”I was thereupon decided to telegraph Kuhn, Loeb & Company that no restrictions would be imposed on the importation of Soviet gold into the United States.” The gold arrived at the New York Assay Office and was deposited not by Kuhn, Loeb & Company but by Guaranty Trust Company of New York City. Guaranty Trust then inquired of the Federal Reserve Board, which in turn inquired of the U.S. Treasury, concerning acceptance and payment. The superintendent of the New York Assay Office informed the U.S Treasury that the approximately seven million dollars of gold had no identifying marks and that “the bars deposited have already been melted into United States Mint bars.”
It was determined at a later date that Soviet gold was also being sent to the Swedish mint. The Swedish mint “melts Russian gold, assays it and affixes the Swedish mint stamp at the request of Swedish banks or other Swedish subjects owing the gold.”
Imperial Russia from 1721 to 1917 was so powerful that it was the only empire to ever span three continents, Europe, Asia, and America. Only the British and Mongol empires ever commanded a greater land mass. Throughout this period, Imperial Russia accumulated much of the world’s wealth in gold bullion and art treasures, natural resources, and other national assets. Between 1917 and 1922, virtually all of Imperial Russia’s wealth was lost due to the Jewish-owned or -controlled banking system’s “investment” in Bolshevism. The Russian people never benefited from this re-distribution of their looted empire’s wealth. All ended up in Jewish-controlled banks scattered throughout Europe and the United States.
Perhaps the final chapter of this story is yet to be written.
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