What is the Golden Dawn?
In an effort to prove Golden Dawn are “neo-Nazis,” anti-nationalist writer Daphne Halikiopoulou shows us that all principles of national health and rebirth are anathema to the establishment.
IN ITS MANIFESTO the party states that being a member of the Golden Dawn entails the acceptance of the following principles: the establishment of the state in accordance to nationalism; the moral obligations that derive from this ideology including the rejection of any authority that perpetuates societal decline; the acceptance of nationalism as the only authentic revolution; the establishment of the popular state in which there are no inequalities on the basis of wealth; racial supremacy and more specifically the belief in the continuation of the ‘Greek race’ from antiquity to the modern day; the idea that the state must correspond and be subservient to the nation/race; and the nationalization of all institutions.
This is openly expressed in the numerous online materials posted on the party’s elaborate website (http://www.xryshaygh.com). The starting point for the Golden Dawn is social decay. Hellenism is on a downward slope. The country is in ‘ruins’ because of the incompetence of Greek politicians who ‘destroyed the nation’ (spelt ‘Nation’ with a capital N in all Golden Dawn texts). The decadence of Greek society is all encompassing: it is political, cultural, moral and a decline of power, i.e. Greece’s underdog status compared to its Golden Past. The Golden Dawn sees itself at the helm of a movement whose vocation is to purify the Greek nation from social decadence associated with corruption, deception, partisan interests and cleptocracy. It is the party’s calling to lead the Greek people in a difficult struggle towards ‘Virtue and self-improvement’. This can only be materialized through a ‘National government with a coherent plan and socio-political vision aligned with the principles of Nationalism and popular socialism’.
The Golden Dawn sees itself not in elitist terms, but rather as a movement from below. The party envisages itself as the embodiment of the collective will of the Greek people and seeks ultimate state power, which it understands as the epitome of the nation and its will. ‘The Nationalist Socialist leader does not stand above or beside the people, he is not part of the people, he is the People’. He incarnates the secret ‘calling of the blood’ and his ultimate goal is full control of state power in the name of the nation.
For the Golden Dawn, representative democracy is not the ‘true democracy’ of the people, it is ‘the child of capitalism’, an instrument through which capitalism dominates the popular masses. For this reason the party condemns liberal democracy and its institutions and in turn admires fascist and totalitarian regimes. Its members glorify fascist personalities, portraying them as heroes for purifying their nations and epitomizing the will of people in a truly democratic system. Party materials make ample references to fascists such as Greece’s Ioannis Metaxas, and Spain’s Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera and Francisco Franco. The ideal regime for Greece, according to the Golden Dawn is the August 4th Regime, led by Ioannis Metaxas between 1936-1941. During the August 4th regime, ‘Greece became an anti-communist, anti-parliamentarian and totalitarian state with an agricultural and working class base, and hence an anti-plutocratic state.
The Golden Dawn seeks ‘catharsis’. The party’s key goal is to eliminate all political divisions and cleanse the nation from outsiders. Communists are identified as those internationalists that seek the annihilation of the Greek nation. Contributing to this ethnocide are also Greece’s external enemies, which include immigrants, but also ‘foreign loan sharks, contractors, pimps and media owners’.
The Golden Dawn seeks to achieve cleansing through violence. Militarism hence is the key to both the Golden Dawn’s ideology and organizational structures. The army is the ultimate value, they claim. A value that encloses within it ‘blood, struggle and sacrifice’. The party’s members see themselves as ‘street soldiers’ fighting for the nationalist cause. This places violence at the heart of Golden Dawn’s activities and illustrates their distinctive view of democracy as a bourgeois construct only to be used as a means for achieving their ultimate goal: its abolition, as its leader Michaloliakos claims. It also explains the link between Golden Dawn members and army officials, as well as the organization of ‘paramilitary orders’ or ‘battalions’ (τάγματα εφόδου).
Τhe Golden Dawn is an ultra-nationalist group that emphasizes the superiority of Greek descent, Greece’s unique language and ancient heritage and the glorification of struggle against the ‘other’, which is portrayed as aggressive and expansionist but culturally inferior. The Greek nation is under threat and constantly undergoing an ideological battle to be salvaged from destruction. But what makes the Golden Dawn a fascist formation, rather than a patriotic or nationalist group, is not simply its ultra-nationalism, which is a characteristic of all far right-wing parties in general, but more specifically the theme of palingenesis- the key theme of national rebirth which forms the Golden Dawn’s ‘nationalist solution’ to social decadence. The Golden Dawn, like other fascist movements before it, sees itself as having the unique mission to lead the nation into a phoenix-like national rebirth, rising from the ashes of the old degenerate social order.
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Source: Read the full article at the Huffington Post