Jewish Bias and the Nobel Prize
by Jan C Biro MD., PhD
Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Homulus Foundation, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
ALFRED NOBEL’S WILL (the founding document of the prestigious Nobel Prize) requests “…that in awarding the prizes no consideration be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize …” This expressed wish is largely ignored by the Nobel Foundation, who award excessive numbers of Prizes to Jewish scientists (who traditionally belong to “One Nation” even if they live in different countries around the World), thus creating the large Jewish-Bias (J-bias). They award the Prize to 137 times more frequently to Jewish candidates worldwide, and 26 times more frequently to those in America, than would be expected from the size of the Jewish population. The proportion of Jewish laureates more than doubled (2.3-fold increase) after the Second World War owing to the explosion of Prizes shared between Jews and Gentiles (8.8-fold increase). Higher IQs and preferential choice of science as a profession among Jews do not fully explain this J-bias. It is more likely that extensive and well-organized personal networking of a marketing type among Jewish scientists, together with the egalitarian-liberal, nonchalant attitude of the Swedish representatives of the Donor, are responsible for this unfortunate phenomenon. It is suggested that the World’s scientific community persuade the Nobel Foundation to follow the rules of Nobel’s Will in accordance with Swedish Law.
JEWS AND CHRISTIANS are often called “The People of the Book” because they have a book of prayer. Jewish affection for these written texts is legendary. George H. W. Bush told us that “The mothers of the Jewish ghettos of the east would pour honey on a book so the children would learn that learning is sweet. And the parents who settled hungry Kansas would take their children in from the fields when a teacher came.” . Learning leads to knowledge, and knowledge leads to better human life, power, social status and wealth. As the result of their mentality the Jews are well represented in intellectual professions and well rewarded for their talents.
Alfred Nobel donated his fortune (gained from the discovery and industrial development of the dynamite) in 1895. His intention for the donation is clearly formulated in his Last Will: he wanted to honor scientists who “…shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind”, and it is explicitly stated that “It is my [Nobel’s] expressed wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize …” .
The popularity of the Nobel Prize has increased greatly over time. The Swedes have recognized the enormous PR value of this Prize for their country, the King and Swedish science. Sweden is a small, Nordic country on the periphery of Europe and it would probably remain largely unnoticed by the “big” world without its annual Nobel ceremony.
For scientists around the world, this Prize became the ultimate symbol of scientific excellence and recognition of this excellence. Young scientists love to dream about it and the dream helps them through endless hours of learning and laboratory exercises. Science is a demanding profession in which it is not easy to survive without dreams.
The Nobel Prize is given to a maximum of three living scientists in six fields, which limits the number of possible laureate to 18 per year. The difficulties in finding the persons who “… have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind” are well recognized. These difficulties regularly lead to complaints against the Nobel Committee stating that they have honored the wrong person. Such complaints are usually not taken too seriously, because the scientific community knows that many more than three persons qualify for recognition among the successful representatives of a scientific field. Nobody has ever said that a laureate was completely unworthy of the Prize given to him or her.
The small number of annually available Prizes makes it very difficult to establish whether the nationalities of the laureates have been considered in any single year. However, we now have data from 110 years, which is sufficient for reliable statistical evaluation and checking of the national- (ethnic-, race-) neutrality of this Prize.
It is probably not news to anybody that Jewish scientists, being well educated and extremely ambitious persons, excel in gaining prestigious scientific prizes and awards. The Nobel Prize is no exception. However the magnitude of the Jewish success is rather surprising.
Statistics of Nobel Laureates 1901-2010
A total of 543 Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 817 laureates and 23 organizations during this 110 year history . At least 181 (21.5%) recipients were Jewish, and at most 659 were Gentiles. Given that 99.8% of the world’s population is Gentile and 0.2% Jewish, the 659 Gentile laureates correspond to 6.6 laureates/(% Gentiles) and the 181 Jewish laureates correspond to 905 laureates/(% Jews), which represents a relative 137-fold Jewish over-representation worldwide.
A total of 299 recipients were Americans. At least 108 (36%) were Jews so at most 191 (64%) were Gentiles. The current USA population is 311.8 million, including 6.5 million (2.1%) Jews. The 191 Gentile Prizes therefore correspond to 1.95/(% Gentiles) in the USA and the 108 Jewish Prizes correspond to 51.4/(% Jews), which represents “only” a 26.3-fold Jewish overrepresentation among laureates in the USA.
The Nobel Prize is awarded in six fields. The number and proportion of Jewish laureates is monitored by several Jewish web sites. The purpose of these websites is – as they state – to provide an online resource that accurately describes the Jewish contribution to the cultural, scientific, and technological evolution of civilization.
Statistics of Jewish Nobel Laureates 1901-2010 
• Chemistry (31 Prize winners, 20% of world total, 27% of US total)
• Economics (28 Prize winners, 42% of world total, 55% of US total)
• Literature (13 Prize winners, 12% of world total, 27% of US total)
• Peace (9 Prize winners, 9% of world total, 10% of US total)3
• Physics (47 Prize winners, 25% of world total, 36% of US total)
• Physiology or Medicine (53 Prize winners, 27% of world total, 40% of US total)
Relatively few scientists received the award during the first 40 years of its history. Single laureates (unshared Prizes) dominated and the Prize was not awarded at all in many years. The proportion of Jewish laureates remained below 10%. Very few Prizes were shared by Jews and Gentiles and those were only in Medicine and Physics. The Economics Prize is not Nobel’s creation; it was established by the Swedish Riksbank and did not exist before 1969 (see Figure 1 in full PDF document; source below).
The list of all Nobel Laureates from The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize  and Jewish Nobel Prize Winners from Jinfo  were used to calculate the proportion of Jewish (J) and Gentile (G) Laureates in Prizes given only to Gentiles, only to Jews, or to Jew-Gentile pairs or trios. The calculations were performed on data for the 1901-1940 and 1941-2010 periods.
A radical change occurred immediately after the Second World War. The number of laureates exploded and Prize-sharing became the norm. This change is often described as the “inflation” of the Prize. It is explained by the acceleration of research and the fact that most scientific work is done by teams today, which makes it unfair to honor only one person. Research redundancy – parallel research and problem solving – is also a contributing factor. Jewish-Gentile Prize sharing grew from a shy ~2.7% to a bold ~24.6% (~9-fold increase). About 10% of Prizes have remained “Jewish only” but the proportion of “Gentile only” Prizes decreased as “J-G shared” Prizes became more frequent. In other words, Jewish scientists more than doubled their share of the available laureate positions because the Gentile share of the “Nobel-cake” declined (Figure 2). The proportion of Jewish laureates grow from 9.4% to 22.2% after the Second World War (p=0.005, n=5) and the percentage of Gentile Prizes dropped correspondingly. (Economics Prizes were excluded from this calculation; they did not exist before 1969.)
(see full PDF document for graphics; source below)
This figure is derived from Figure 1. The bars represent Mean ± S.E.M., n=5 (Prizes in economics were omitted). A paired Student t test was used to evaluate the significance of differences.
As many as 65 different nations have been honored by at least one Prize during the past 110 years, and 32 nations have received at least three Prizes. Further statistical analyses were performed on these 32 nations (Table II). The national frequencies (NL/1 Million inhabitants/110 years) of Nobel Laureates (NL) were calculated using the Nobel Laureates by Nationality  and List of Countries by Population  data. They were compared to the National IQ values from 2006 , books published per country per year (2006)  (expressed as new titles/10K inhabitants/year), patents granted (1998)  (expressed as patents/1 Million inhabitants/year) and Jewish population (%) in the corresponding countries .
The number of laureates shows large variations from country to country (Figure 3). Jewish people (defined by ethnicity, living anywhere in the world and not only as citizens of Israel) are far ahead of any other nation with 12.7 laureates per million of population. They are followed by Switzerland and Sweden, both of which countries have “only” three laureates per million inhabitants.
It is often mentioned (in scientific and popular readings) that the Jewish IQ is higher than the Gentile IQ, i.e. Jewish people are smarter and therefore contribute more to the intellectual activity of a society than non-Jews.
It is expected that the national frequency of Nobel Laureates should correlate with the average National IQ, but this is not the case. However, the literary production of a country correlates significantly with the frequency of laureates in that country (Figure 3 insert). The number of granted patents correlates significantly with the national IQ, but not with the number of Nobel laureates. The size of the Jewish population in a country has no significant effect on that country’s intellectual activity, measured as National IQ, book production or patenting.
(see full PDF document for graphics; source below)
The Nobel Prize gradually developed, over 110 years, into one of the most prestigious scientific awards. The most ambitious researchers usually have this Prize on their “secret” wish-lists as the ultimate recognition of scientific excellence. Different, mostly well-developed, countries have adopted this view and provide exceptional benefits to their Nobel Laureates. The Prize money (ca. 300K-1M USD) is only a fraction of the economic reward awaiting a winner and his institution and associates. A laureate is worth his or her body weight in gold for associated universities, book editors and companies. There are also many social benefits such as honorary positions, board memberships, and well-paid lectures, just to mention a few. The Nobel Prize is not just recognition, it is power. Therefore it is necessary for the scientific community, in addition to according well-deserved respect, to keep an eye on the laureates and on how they and those around them use their scientific and monetary power.
Additionally, this Prize ensures a place in scientific history. Laureates and their works are always mentioned in history books as milestones in the development of sciences. Scientists are very sensitive to this kind of legacy.
Extra IQ behind the J-bias
The statistical analyses suggest that Jewish scientists are strongly over-represented among laureates. This J-bias is 26-fold in the USA. The bias is well known, but its magnitude is not widely recognized. It is often explained by the higher IQ of Jews. It has been suggested  that the average IQ of Jewish Americans is 115 followed by East Asians (106), Whites (103), Latinos (89) and African Americans (85). Several comments can be made about this very high average Jewish IQ. It is valid for Ashkenazi Jews, but it is not seen in the national IQ of Israel (which is 100). It is about verbal intelligence; in other types of IQ (e.g. motor or spatial), Jews may be well below average. The average Ashkenazi IQ was measured by Lynn to be 107 in America (12) and 103 in Israel (12). The source of Jewish intelligence has been well reviewed and thoroughly discussed in the literature [14-16].
It is logical to assume that successful scientists show well above average intelligence, but it is just speculation that a scientist with, say, IQ = 135 has a greater chance of success than one with “only” IQ = 130. Verbal intelligence, of which the Jews have most, may have a large influence in competition for the Prizes in Peace, Literature or Economics, but a different kind of intelligence is necessary to be successful in Physics, Physiology and Chemistry. It is difficult to believe in the decisive role of extra high IQ in becoming a laureate, when other high IQ nations (East Asians) produce few awards. The typically average national IQ and scientific eminence of Israel is another disturbing circumstance for attempts to explain Jewish success by intelligence alone.
Extra affection behind the J-bias
Another plausible explanation for the J-bias is that a larger proportion of the Jewish than the Gentile population of a Gentile society is engaged in intellectual activity. The 26x J-bias in America would therefore imply that 26 times more Jews than other Americans choose science as profession. There are about 2.1 M scientists in the USA , representing 0.6% of Americans. Of the 6M American Jews, 0.6% is 36,000, which would mean that 26×36,000=1,044,000 Jews are scientists, i.e. every 6th Jew in the USA. This is a highly unlikely number.
The proportion of Jewish laureates has more than doubled since the Second World War. This increase is due to the large increase of Jew-Gentile-shared Prizes. Brilliant Jews and Gentiles started to cooperate, or they chanced to develop the same successful lines of research in their scientific fields. This type of co-representation (or coincidence) was almost unprecedented before the War. It is another remarkable phenomenon. It suggests that the most talented Jews survived the Holocaust (while 1:2-3 of the Jewish population lost their lives); these geniuses were reshuffled among the wealthiest nations and restarted bright scientific careers, mostly in the USA, a star-carrier that was never seen before.
Nomination and policy behind the J-bias
The question remains: where does this 26-fold J-bias come from? The answer might be in the Laureate selection procedure, though this procedure appears very democratic.
Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3000 individuals, usually in September of the year before the Prizes are awarded. These individuals are often academics working in a relevant area. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award. The Nobel Committee selects about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names. The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the Prize. All nomination records for a Prize are sealed for 50 years after the award. The Nobel Committee then prepares a report, drawn from the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the Prize-awarding institutions. The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote. A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award .
For example the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by the Nobel Assembly, which consists of 50 professors (out of a total of about 500) in the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. The Nobel Committee consists of five members and the secretary of the Nobel Assembly. The members are elected for a period of three years. Each year, ten associate members are elected for a term running from March until October. The Nobel Committee is the working body of the Nobel Assembly [19, 20].
“The right to submit proposals for the award of Prizes, based on the principle of competence and universality, shall by statute be enjoyed by:
IN PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE
1. Members of the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute;
2. Swedish and foreign members of the medical class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences;
3. Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine;
4. Members of the Nobel Committee not qualified under paragraph 1 above;
5. Holders of established posts as professors at the faculties of medicine in Sweden and holders of similar posts at the faculties of medicine or similar institutions in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway;
6. Holders of similar posts at no fewer than six other faculties of medicine selected by the Assembly, with a view to ensuring the appropriate distribution of the task among various countries and their seats of learning; and
7. Practitioners of natural sciences whom the Assembly may otherwise see fit to approach.
Decisions concerning the selection of the persons appointed under paragraphs 6 and 7 above are taken before the end of May each year on the recommendation of the Nobel Committee” .
To get on to the list of nominees when there are ca. 300 of them is in itself a challenge. Scientists who are not well-funded and in well-exposed positions, or are simply shy, are already marginalized. Becoming one of the 1-3 laureates among the 300 nominees happens in two steps. The Nobel Assembly has probably already made the policy decision in February when it decides which field of research should be honored. This is a very important decision and may fundamentally decide for or against the J-bias.
An example might look like this, without implying that anything of the kind really happened. Real names are used only to make the example more plausible.
The Human Genome Project was largely completed in 2000 [21, 22]. The names of Francis Collins and Craig Venter became very familiar to the entire world during the most competitive final three years of sequencing . Sequencing of the human genome was a huge investment by the scientific community and the grant-giving nations behind it. It was clear that it had significant benefits for humankind and would fundamentally change ways of thinking and working in biology. It was generally expected that the project would somehow be honored by a Nobel Prize.
However, the key person who catalyzed the project, and saved it from bankruptcy, was Craig Venter, a scientist and entrepreneur. He was working for himself and his company, Celera, meanwhile serving humankind (there are many similarities between him and A. Nobel). Celera was selling the sequences to other scientists and patenting them for future biotechnological applications. This made Venter unpopular in the economically rather naïve scientific community.
The second best candidate was Francis Collins, the head of the Human Genome Project, HGP, at the NIH. He is a talented, highly social person with good organizing skills. However, his academic organization became famous for its slowness and expensiveness. Many academic scientists used the project for comfortable living for decades with no end in the sight. Additionally, Collins is an openly and deeply religious scientist, a Christian one, which irritates many others.
Number three in the sequencing arena was John E. Sulston, the director of the newly established Sanger Centre, located in Cambridgeshire, England. He and his Centre significantly contributed to the success of the HGP but were still far behind Collins and Venter.
The Collins-Venter-Sulston trio could have been the ideal laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 2002. This did not happen. The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute made the policy decision to choose another research area to honor, which kept Sulston (and the HGP) on the nominee list but rejected Collins and Venter. Honoring Sulston for research on C. elegans (a worm) instead of sequencing the human genome (a human) gave a “free ride” to the Nobel Prize for Sydney Brenner and H. Robert Horvitz, who both happened to be Jews. A J-bias was born, though the benefits of C. elegans for humankind remain to be seen.
Networking behind the J-bias
When the policy decision has been made by the Nobel Assembly, already in February, it is up to the extended Nobel Committee (16 persons) to choose from the short list of candidates. At this stage the most important factor is the number and status of the scientists who support a particular nominee. A nominee with many or weighty supporters will probably be the finally selected one. And it is here that Jewish scientists can and do use of their talent for networking (with other Jews) and their exceptional verbal intelligence. We might not be able to see a full explanation for the J-bias in higher Jewish IQ or preferential selection of intellectual carriers by Jews. The probable remaining explanation is the stronger advocacy behind Jewish than behind Gentile scientists. The somewhat higher IQ, the somewhat preferential selection of intellectual jobs and the strong and effective Jewish networking together add up to the 26-fold J-bias. It is readily understandable that there are 26 times more “mentors” (mostly other Jews) behind every successful Jewish scientist than behind a successful Gentile scientist in the USA.
The Nobel Foundation itself behind the J-bias
Swedes are rather sensitive to corruption. Sweden is an extremely egalitarian society where the people spend substantial amount of time monitoring and controlling each other. Selling or buying a Nobel Prize is unthinkable. At the same time, however, they are very responsive to all kinds of (often stupid) egalitarian argument. The idea of giving “one Prize to a Jew and one to a Gentile” is highly acceptable to an egalitarian Swede.
Socio-communistic or Marxist societies are very negative, even hostile, to titles and prizes, because they are leftovers from bourgeois societies and increase (or underline) social inequality. Sweden is the only country in the world where the political élite has tried to convince the doctors (MDs) not to use the title “doctor” ). They even tried to get rid of usual academic positions such as associate and assistant professors [25, 26]. Sweden is the only country in the world where you can push a tart into the face of the King and not be punished .
That Swedes are still entrusted to provide a prestigious prize is almost a joke and it is certainly one of the biggest ongoing hypocrisies in the world. However, the Nobel Prize has considerable PR benefits for the country as a whole and the Swedish scientific establishment in particular. Swedes do not care who the recipients of their Prizes are and for what they are awarded; the important thing for them is the attention and money they provide. Swedish scientists do not care about the gender or ethnicity of a laureate; the important thing is that the Prize awarding procedure itself provides them with contacts, fame, easy publications in prestigious papers, invitations for conferences as session chiefs, or positions as society presidents, and ultimately more research money . Jews or Gentiles, it doesn’t matter, the show must go on!
This nonchalant and permissive attitude, which you might call “corruption through passive acceptance of bias”, opens the gates of Sweden wide for networking of a personal, marketing type and ultimately leads to the J-bias.
The Gentiles themselves behind the J-bias
The above-described over-ambitious group-marketing, expansive and highly competitive behavior of the Jewish people is not unique to the Nobel Prize or to the post-War period. It has been seen continuously and everywhere that Jews have lived during the last 3000 years. Many Gentiles misunderstand it and might react to it inadequately. Gentiles should understand, after three millennia, that Jews were and are an intelligent and ambitious variant of the human race who have kept their unique genetic, religious, cultural and spiritual heritage intact even after diaspora and dispersion in different foreign countries. They are a Nation (one Nation!) living not only in Israel but also in many other countries around the world. They have a very effective group evolutionary strategy . They learned the art of prospering disproportionately wherever they went, in any Gentile milieu, for relatively long periods. (We have more recently seen in Israel how much they can prosper on their own in the milieu of other Jews).
However, Gentiles shouldn’t forget that Jews are paying a very high price for their genetic and cultural integrity in the form of inherited genetic diseases (the result of a too small gene pool)  and periodically huge losses of life (the result of Gentile frustration). There is a huge and selective genetic pressure on this Nation, and excruciating social pressure on every single Jew by his or her own community. It is not easy to live up to the Covenant!
At the same time, Gentiles often seems to be easy prey. Gentiles, as a majority group, are most likely exposed to competition from other Gentiles and are often poorly prepared for concurrent competition from a smart, minority Jew. Christian life and forgiveness, postponing justice and individual rewards to “the world after this world”, is not the best strategy for Earthly success. The economic naivety of many Gentile scientists and their “sweet” idealism regarding the goodness of “all” people (Humankind!) is especially regrettable in this context.
The J-bias as a violation of Nobel’s Will
Are the Jews a Nation? The traditional view, and the one given in the Torah, is that the Jews are a nation. The Torah and the rabbis used this term not in the modern sense, meaning a territorial and political entity, but in the ancient sense meaning a group of people with a common history, a common destiny, and a sense that they are all connected to each other .
The Jews (Hebrew: Yehudim [jɛhuːdiːm]), also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation [32-34].
Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, and a culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used .
“Most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora” . Researchers have expressed surprise at the remarkable genetic uniformity they found among modern Jews, no matter where the diaspora has become dispersed around the world.
Nationality is membership of a nation or sovereign state. In several areas of the world, the term nationality can be defined on the basis of ethnicity, as well as cultural and family-based self-determination, rather than on relations with a state or current government. However, nationality can refer to membership of a nation (collective of people sharing a national identity, usually based on ethnic and cultural ties and self-determination) even if that nation has no state, such as the Basques, Kurds, Tamils and Scots .
For example, there are people who would say that they are Kurds, i.e., of Kurdish nationality, even though no such Kurdish sovereign state exists at least at this time in history. In the context of the former Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, nationality is often used as translation of the Russian and Serbo-Croatian terms (национальность/ natsionalnost, народность/narodnost) used for ethnic groups and local affiliations within those (former) states.
In fact, even today the Russian Federation, as an excellent example, consists of various people whose nationality is other than Russian, but they are considered to be Russian subjects and comply with the laws of the Federation. Similarly, the term “nationalities of China” refers to cultural groups in China. Spain is one Nation, made up of different nationalities, which are not politically recognized as nations (states), or can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish Nation.
It is sufficient to read only Jewish writings, and bypass Gentile comments, to understand and accept that Jews are a (single) distinct Nationality.
Conclusions and Suggestion
Jewish scientists have successfully secured for themselves disproportionately large shares of the prestigious Nobel Prize and the associated power over society’s resources for scientific/intellectual production. With all due respect to Jewish IQ, intellectual devotedness and networking talents, it is a well-recognized bias that Gentile scientists should address, with kindness and “Christian love”, to prevent misunderstanding, build-up of ethnic tensions and repetition of historical mistakes. The scientists of the World are kindly encouraged to persuade the Swedish Nobel Foundation to pay more attention to Nobel’s Will and correct the J-bias.
Many thanks to my many friends and numerous enemies at the Karolinska Institute (Stockholm, Sweden) for providing me the necessary “Trust” and “Resistance” for lifting this project as well as for the inspiration to write my book, THE SWEDISH GOD (2009, www.amazon.com).
Many thanks to Professor Kevin MacDonald, California State University Long Beach, for teaching me the correct, sensible and scientific style to write about the Jewish Nation.
1. George H. W. Bush, Acceptance Speech at the Republican National Convention (August 18, 1988) – http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/pdfs/rnc.pdf – access on January 18th, 2011
2. Nobelprize.org – The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel. (http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/short_testamente.html – Last accessed 2011 01 17.
3. Nobelprize.org – The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/nobelprize_facts.html. – Last accessed 2011 01 17,
4. Jinfo.org. – http://www.jinfo.org/Nobel_Prizes.html – Last accessed 2011 01 17.
5. Nobel laureates by nationality http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Nobel_laureates_by_nationality – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
6. List of countries by population http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
7. IQ and Global Inequality – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IQ_and_Global_Inequality – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
8. Books published per country per year – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Books_published_per_country_per_year – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
9. Economy Statistics > Patents granted (most recent) by country – http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_pat_gra-economy-patents-granted – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
10. Jewish population – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_population – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
11. Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve. New York: Free Press.
12. Lynn, R. (2004). The intelligence of American Jews. Personality and Individual Differences 36, 201–206.
13. Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2006). IQ and Global Inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers, p. 312.
14. Charles Murray. Jewish Genius. Commentarymagasine.com, 2007 – http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/jewish-genius-10855 – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
15. J. Philippe Rushton. Race, Intelligence, and the Brain: The Errors and Omissions of the Revised Edition of S. J. Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man (1996). Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 23, No. 1 (July 1997), pp. 169-180
16. R. Brian Ferguson. How Jews Became Smart: Anti-“Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence”. – http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~socant/How%20Jews%20Became%20Smart%20%282008%29.pdf – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
17. Scientists, Engineers and Technitians in the United States: 2001. Detailed Statistical Tables, http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf05313/tables.htm – Last accessed 2011 01 21.
18. NOBEL FOUNDATION – http://nobelprize.org/nobel_organizations/nobelfoundation/directory_org_110112.pdf
19. The Nobel Assembly 2010 – http://www.mednobel.ki.se/mednobel/assembly.html
20. The Nobel Committee 2010 – http://www.mednobel.ki.se/mednobel/committee.html
21. Venter, J. Craig; et al. (February 16, 2001). “The Sequence of the Human Genome”. Science (journal) 291 (5507): 1304–51
22. Eric S. Lander. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409, 860-921 (15 February 2001)
23. Adams, J. (2008) Sequencing human genome: the contributions of Francis Collins and Craig Venter. Nature Education 1(1)
24. Lars-Ake Pellborn – CEO of The Swedish Society of Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden, – personal communication, 2001.
25. Court Case T 27-04, Solna Tingsratt, Solna, Sweden, 2004.
26. Court Case T 3688-07, Solna Tingsratt, Solna, Sweden, 2007.
27. Swedish king in tart attack – BBC News. 6 September, 2001. – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1529270.stm –
28. Biro JC. The Swedish God. 2009, www.amazon.com
29. K. McDonald. A People that shall Dwell Alone – Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy, with Diaspora People. Writers Club Press. San Jose, 2002.
30. Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Disease, Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Health/genetics.html
31. Judaism 101. What is Judaism? http://www.jewfaq.org/judaism.htm –
32. “The Jewish Problem: How To Solve It,” U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis, “Jews are a distinctive nationality of which every Jew, whatever his country, his station or shade of belief, is necessarily a member” (April 25, 1915), University of Louisville Louis D. Brandeis School of Law, http://www.law.louisville.edu/library/collections/brandeis/node/234 Retrieved on June 15, 2009
33. Palmer, Henry, A History of the Jewish Nation (1875), D. Lothrop & Co., Retrieved on June 15, 2009
34. “The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 7: Berlin Years,” U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis, “The Jewish Nation is a living fact” (June 21, 1921), Princeton University Press,
35. Weiner, Rebecca (2007). “Who is a Jew?”. Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/whojew1.html. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
36. Hammer, Mf; Redd, Aj; Wood, Et; Bonner, Mr; Jarjanazi, H; Karafet, T; Santachiara-Benerecetti, S; Oppenheim, A; Jobling, Ma, Jenkins, T; Ostrer, H; Bonne-Tamir, B (Jun 2000). “Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes.” (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (12): 6769–74. – http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10801975.
37. Nationality. Wikipedia. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationality – Last accessed 2011 01 21.