Essays

What We Are

ere_geologiche

by David Sims

THIS contiguous region of spacetime, the universe, appeared from vacuum energy about 13.7 billion years ago. The solar nebula condensed into a central star and a planetary system about 5 billion years ago.

Earth’s Life includes cellular organisms, viruses, and viroids. Biogenesis occurred in Earth’s oceans about 3.8 billion years ago, perhaps seeded by molecular replicators photochemically evolved in tidewater pools along the primordial shores.

Cellular organisms include archaea, bacteria, eukaryota (eucaryotes), and many other subdivisions. Procaryotic cell structure appeared about 3.3 billion years ago. Photosynthetic bacteria appeared about 3.0 billion years ago, causing the oxidation of the other gas species and then the slow rise of the atmospheric concentration of free oxygen over the next two billion years.

Superkingdom

Eukaryota (eucaryotes) includes the fungi-metazoa group, viridiplantae (green plants), and other subdivisions. The original form of eucaryote appeared about 2.3 billion years ago. The fungi-metazoa group includes fungi and metazoa (metazoans) and other subdivisions.

Kingdom

Metazoa (metazoans) includes eumetazoa, mesozoa, myxozoa, placozoa, and porifera (sponges). The original metazoa may have appeared about 600 million years ago (along with fungi).

Eumetazoa includes bilateria, cnidaria, and ctenophora.

Bilatera includes acoelomata, coelomata, and pseudocoelomata.

Coelomata includes deuterostomia and protostomia.

Deuterostomia includes chaetognatha, chordata, echinoderms, hemichordates, and xenoturbellida.

Early plants colonize land 570 million years ago.

Phylum

Chordata (chordates) includes cephalochordata, craniata and urochordata (tunicates).

Subphylum

Craniata includes hyperotreti and vertebrata (vertebrates).

Vertebrata (vertebrates) includes gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) and hyperoartia.

Superclass

Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) includes chondrichthyes and teleostomi.

Teleostomi includes euteleostomi (bony vertebrates).

Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates) includes actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) and sarcopterygii.

Sarcopterygii includes coelacanthimorpha, dipnoi (lungfish), and tetrapoda (tetrapods).

Forests appear 420 million years ago. Animals begin to encroach upon the land!

Tetrapoda (tetrapods) includes amniota (amniotes) and amphibia (amphibians).

Reptiles appeared 330 million years ago.

Amniota (amniotes) includes mammalia (mammals) and sauropsida (sauropsids).

Mammals appeared 210 million years ago. Reptiles started getting bigger!

Class

Mammalia (mammals) includes prototheria and theria.

Theria includes eutheria (placentals) and metatheria.

Eutheria (placentals) includes afrotheria, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria, and xenathra.

Dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago. Monkeys appeared about 60 million years ago.

Superorder

Euarchontoglires include dermoptera, glires, primates, and scandentia.

Proto-primates appeared about 40 million years ago.

Order

Primates include haplorrhini, strepsirrhini (prosimians), Japanese monkeys and marmosets.

Proconsul, a genus of three species (major, africanus and nyanzae) appeared 24 million years ago.

Suborder

Haplorrhini includes simiiformes and tarsiiformes.

Infraorder

Simiiformes include catarrhini and platyrrhini (New World monkeys).

Parvorder

Catarrhini includes cercopithecoidea and hominoidea (apes).

Superfamily

Hominoidea (apes) includes hominidea (great apes), hylobatidae (gibbons).

Gibbons appeared 15 million years ago.

Family

Hominidea (great apes) includes the Homo-Pan-Gorilla group and Pongo (orangutan).

Orangutans appeared 11 million years ago. The Homo-Pan-Gorilla group includes Homo (Man), Pan (chimpanzees), and Gorilla.

Gorillas appeared 7 million years ago.

Chimpanzees appeared 5 million years ago.

Australopithecus hominids (brain volume 400 cc – 530 cc) appeared 5 million years ago.

Genus

Homo (Man) includes Homo sapiens and Homo erectus.

Homo habilis (brain volume 530 cc to 800 cc) appeared 2.8 million years ago; became extinct 1.8 million years ago.

Homo erectus (brain volume 800 cc to 1300 cc) appeared 1.8 million years ago; remains extant in Africa, Indonesia, Australia and is interfertile with Homo sapiens.

Homo sapiens (brain volume 1300 cc to 1600 cc) appeared in Europe or in Northern Asia about 800,000 years ago. Migrations of these original sapiens spread the large sapiens brain to the rest of the Eurasia and northern Africa over time.

Species

Homo sapiens includes the White race and the (non-Yoyoi) Asian race.

Race

The White race includes Nordics, Alpines, and Mediterraneans (near extinction).

The original White people were Cro-Magnon, appearing about 40,000 years ago in Europe or Northern Asia.

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